A new solution to impingment attack of heat exchangers, condensers and reactors tubes 

Heat Exchangers and Steam Condensers are liable to various  forms of deterioration and corrosion among which impingment Attack or Erosion-Corrosion  is a very damaging one due to the  relatively high rate of attack penetration. 
Erosion-Corrosion  is  essentially due to removal  of  protective oxides or corrosion layers from metal surfaces by turbulent  flow of liquids or by high velocity drops of condensing vapours or  by suspended  solid  particles  carried over  in  the  refrigerating fluid.
As  mechanical  forces, necessary to remove  oxides  or  corrosion products  from  metal surfaces decrease  drastically  when  flow becomes laminar inside tubes Erosion-Corrosion is mostly limited to  the  initial  part of a tube (generally in  a  length  corresponding to µ-1° times the tube diameter and more rarely to  the final part of a tube. 
As  a  result of Erosion-Corrosion heat exchanger  or  condenser tubes  tend  to loose their mechanical strength due to  a  severe thickness reduction just next the tube plate and eventually to be perforated  at the inlets while the rest of surface might  still be in good conditions. 
 To solve this problem of tube deterioration either to repair damaged  tubes  or  to protect new ones Aetech  have  developed  and tested Metallic Inserts in different materials and a proprietary Hydraulic Expansion technique for their installation.